An introduction to the case system
The case system in Kasir is complex and cannot be taught in one lesson. We have 45 cases, but in this lesson we will learn the first three which are coincidently the three easiest, the Nominative, the Subjective and the Accusative!
The Nominative VS. The Subjective
The nominative case is not like most languages. It is the root form that all cases are made from, this is because sometimes the subjective form is irregular. The nominative form is used in dictionaries, after the verb to be and is "root form", meaning that we build other cases and endings from this case. But the subjective is used for the subject. So in the sentence "The girl is a child", "the girl" is in the subjective and "the child" is in the nominative. Usually, the subjective and nominative forms are the same, but some such as the word for boy (gúró) become irregular in the subjective (gérí). So far, all the words we have covered apart from "boy" don't change in the subjective. But we will cover some common ones now. When the subjective is irregular, it will be mentioned in the tips and notes.
- Sefer - Súga (Book)
- Tosá - Tosúl (Bird)
- Rúg - Róga (Baby)
- Fun - Fune (Pen)
- Dhám - Dhajól (Owl)
To make them plural just add the ending -(e)j as usual. For example dhajól becomes dhajóle.
Using Nouns As Subjects
To use a noun as a subject, it's very easy! If it's masculine first put the he form of the verb down vice versa if it's feminine. If it's in the plural, use the respected form of they
Let's learn to say.
- The boy is a child
- The girl is a child
- The boys are children
- The girls are children
So let's get "he is", "she is", "they are (m.)" and "they are (f.)" forms
All you need to do is add the words for "the boy", "the girl", "the boys" and "the girls" in the subjective case.
- Azunúnalúne'eral'gérí - The boy is
- Azunúnalúnezí'al'jená - The girl is
- Azunúnalúnalerej'al'géríj - The boys are
- Azunúnalúnalzej'al'jenáj - The girls are
So now let's translate our sentences!
- Azunúnalúne'eral'gérí mah dezath - The boy is a child
- Azunúnalúnezí'al'jená mah dezath - The girl is a child
- Azunúnalúnalerej'al'géríj mazh dezathej - The boys are children
- Azunúnalúnalzej'al'jenáj mazh dezathej - The girls are children
The Accusative Case
The Accusative case is used for the direct object or the object reveiving the action. Here are some examples:
- I eat the apple - The apple is receiving the action of being eaten.
- I give the man his coat - His coat is receiving the action of being given
- I want those hats! - Those hats is receiving te action of being wanted.
It takes a bit of time to understand it, but over time it will make sense. Thankfully unlike the nominative and subjective cases, the other 43 cases are super easy to form! All that you need to learn is the two endings, one for the singular and one for the plural. There are NO exceptions in this case! First start off with the nominative form, as I said, this is the root form that we build the cases from.
- al'Sefer - The book (Nominative / Root Form)
- al'Seferló - The book (Accusative)
- al'Seferej - The books (Nominative)
- al'Seferlój - The books (Accusative)