The Genitive Edit
I know, I know! You're only maybe getting used to the Accusative case and now here's another you might as well call me al'Shejtan Kalónole (lit. "The devil of the cave" and is used when someone is mean or cruel) and this phrase also used the genitive case! Compare:
- Súpá domates - Soup tomato
- Súpá domatesenole - Soup of tomato (i.e. Tomato soup!)
The genitive is used for compound nouns (i.e when two nouns go together) and in place of the word "of". For example "tomato soup" or "The start of the race". Note, that unlike other languages this case is not used for ownership, we use to different cases for that and we won't cover that today! This case forms like the Accusative, just start with the Nominative and add the endings.
- al'Sefer - The book (Nominative / Root form)
- al'Sefernole - (Of) the book (Genitive)
- al'Seferej - The books
- al'Sefernolej - (Of) the books (Genitive plural)
The downside to this case is that similar to the subjective, there are irregular forms too. Thankfully, the number is far smaller than that of the subjective and there are only 27 words that have irregular genitive form and most of them are food.
- al'Safúg - Of the drink (Root: Shófá)
- al'Súnah - Of the morning (Súneh)
- al'Pesór - Of the fish (Pesárí)
- al'Úgol - Of the cup (Úsa)
- al'Chúle - Of the leaves
- al'Fúnól - Of the pen (Fun)
- al'Tópuch - Of the orange (Tapúch)
- al'Tópuz - Of the apple (Tapúz)
About Borrowing Words Edit
Even though there are many loanwords from Greek, Hebrew, Turkish and others, when a word is directly taken from a language, the spelling is changed so that it sounds the same as it did in the original language. So "pizza" becomes "pítsa", "ice cream" becomes "dzhelató" (from the Italian "gelato"). The gender is also kept regardless of the Kasir rules. Dzhelató is masculine because gelato is masculine, obviously this doesn't always work with languages that have genders such as neuter or common. In that case just apply the normal rules.
The Partitive Case Edit
OK, this is the last case we'll cover and then we'll take a break from it. This is a nice and easy case that is not only 100% regular, but used in everyday life too! We use it a lot with food. Like the genitive, it translates to "of" but unlike the genitive we use it with things like "a cup of tea" or "a glass of milk".
- al'Té - The tea
- al'Shasko - The cup
- al'Shasko al'tékhól - The cup of tea (lit. The-cup the-tea-of)
- al'Únt - The milk
- al'Ver - The glass
- al'Únt al'verkhól - The glass of milk (lit. The-glass the-milk-of)
Don't worry, we'll take a break from cases for while :)